Schramm Communication Model - Definition, Limitations and Examples - (2023)

Schramm's model of communication is a two-way communication which suggests that when information arrives at the receiver it is up to him to figure out what the speaker is trying to say. Transmission is useless unless and until the second party can understand or decipher the information the sender wishes to transmit.

In a Schramm model of communication, encoding and decoding are two of the most important aspects of good communication, without which data cannot be transmitted between two people. Encoding and decoding are the two basic steps of efficiencyCommunication, according to Schramm's concept.

What is Schramm's model of communication?

Definition:The Schramm communication model is defined as a cyclic communication model in which a message or piece of information and its acknowledgment or acknowledgment are exchanged between a sender and a receiver. Schramm's model was influenced by the theories of another theorist, Osgood, and is therefore also known as the Osgood and Schramm model of communication or the Encode-Decode model of communication.

Schramm's communication model was first proposed in 1954 and was based on the Shannon-Weaver model. Charles Osgood was the first to suggest this. He initially argued that communication was a circular model rather than a linear paradigm. W. Schramm, who noticed this in his work, later modified this model.

Understand Schramm's model of communication

This model uses a traditional method to explain communication flow. This implies that communication is a two-way street, with the message going back and forth between sender and receiver. It is based on the idea that both the sender and the receiver must understand the message.

Wilbur Schramm emphasizes that communication is only complete when the sender receives input from the receiver. The previous communication paradigm ended with the transmission of information to the recipient; they followed a one-way communication channel. On the other hand, this paradigm is based on a two-way communication flow in which the sender and the receiver exchange roles. Schramm was a firm believer in the two-way nature of communication.

Elements of Schramm's model of communication

Several elements play a crucial role in this communication model to optimize communication flow and impact. When a message arrives at the recipient, it is up to him to find out what the speaker is saying.

The two main stages of efficient communication that a sender goes through are encoding and decoding. Let's take a look at all the related elements here and now.

1. Origin or sender

The person who sends the message is called the sender. Once he composes the message and sends it to the recipient, the sender is considered the source of the message.

The message must be clear, legible and understandable for the recipient, and the sender is responsible for all this.

The sender must ensure that the information or message he transmits to the recipient is relevant, critical and accurate.

(Video) Schramm's Communication Model

2. encoder

The encoder is the one who encodes a message and converts the message into codes for transmission.

To express our ideas to the message recipient, we need to think of the right words and the order in which we should deliver our messages.

3. Decoder

The decoder decodes the message. A decoder takes the encrypted message transmitted by the encoder and converts it into a language the recipient can understand.

When we receive a message, we must use our reading, listening, and other skills to decipher it in a way that makes sense to us.

4. Interpreter

The interpreter interprets the message. It is in charge of decrypting and interpreting the message. The interpreter's job is to decode and interpret the message.

The message will be received once resolved. The recipient and the interpreter are the same person. Someone may receive the message very differently from another.

Alternatively, they may not understand in the same way as the coder, leading to misinterpretation of the text.

5. Recipient

The receiver is also known as the decoder of the message. The receiver is the recipient of the sender's messages.

When decoding a message, several elements must be considered to ensure that the recipient understands it.

6. message

Data from the sender and information received by the receiver is referred to as a message.

The fundamental component of communication is the message, which can be text, audio, video or a mixture of the three.

(Video) Special Recipes of Communication (Schramm's Model of Communication)

Depending on the giver and receiver, it can be verbal or non-verbal.


The process of getting the recipient to acknowledge the received message is called feedback. With feedback, a receipt confirms that the message was received.

When the receiver starts transmitting information based on input received from the sender, that information is sent back to the sender as feedback.

Thus, if in the communication process the source of the message receives an acknowledgment from the recipient, the process is understood as feedback.

8. Medium

The channel through which the message is transmitted is called the medium or medium.

A sender and receiver channel their effective communication using the most appropriate communication medium.

9. Semantic noise

Interruptions in the communication process are called semantic noise. Noise draws attention away from the message, causing it to fail and the communication process to fail.

Because of noise, the intended meaning with which the sender conveys messages may or may not be understood by the receiver. Noise dilutes the message and can also lead to a change in the meaning of the message.

Disturbances and disturbances related to the process are referred to as noise. Semantic noise occurs when the intended meaning of the communication transmitted by the sender differs from the meaning understood by the receiver.

In short, Schramm's model of communication is a cyclical communication model that covers all the basic principles of communication.

Advantages of the Osgood-Schramm model

Schramm Communication Model - Definition, Limitations and Examples - (1)

(Video) 147. Wilbur Schramm's Model of Communication

This is the first non-linear communication model. This model believes that communication is a two-way process rather than a one-way process, making it a circular model.

Schramm's model of communication allows both the sender and receiver to create the message and deliver it to the other person, allowing them to assume the role of the other. The communication model includes the idea of ​​noise, which helps to understand the problems that can arise during the decoding of the message by the sender.

Since this type of communication includes a feedback mechanism, it is easier for the sender to determine whether the message has been received, understood and understood by the recipient. The sender can also see if the recipient understands the message as the sender intended.

It is a dynamic model that represents how a situation can change over time. This model assumes that communication is circular in nature, with feedback being one of the key elements that make this model highly results-oriented.

Schramm Communication Restrictions

It is incapable of handling complex communication processes or a layered communication model.

It is assumed that there is a sender and a recipient. In fact, there can be multiple senders or recipients, and communication can be a multi-step process that our model skips.

Examples of Schramm's model of communication

Let's better understand the Osgood-Schramm model with an example.

"Will you come to the movies with me?" ABC asks XYZ sam.

As XYZ remained silent and did not respond, communication between ABC and XYZ was incomplete. If XYZ was not interested in the film, it could have responded or informed ABC of its disinterest.

According to Schramm's model, when the information reaches the addressee, he must provide feedback, informing him whether XYZ received exactly the message that the speaker intended. If anything is unclear or in doubt, he should consult the speaker.

  1. Sender
  2. M↓ ↑M (M here represents the message)
  3. Recipient

Let's look at another example where two friends, Bill and Moody, interacted with each other. Bill says, "I'm always late for work, so please give me a watch."

(Video) Schramm Model of Communication - Elements, Advantages and Disadvantages

Moody went to a local store and bought Bill a watch, and Bill was never late for work after that. He may have misunderstood the message, but how could he understand his friend's desire if he did?

They are known as messages with denotative meaning that are almost the same for everyone, eliminating the possibility of misinterpretations and misunderstandings.

Bill just wanted a watch in this scenario, but Moody helped with his emotional quotient and personal dedication. Connotative meanings are those whose meanings are influenced by emotional variables.body language, gestures, facial movements, and many other things can misrepresent a message.

In summary, when a sender sends information to a recipient, the recipient must correctly interpret it to the sender and provide feedback or respond correctly. Any communication where the sender does not receive feedback is incomplete and therefore unsuccessful.


The communication model proposed by Schramm is more practical than those offered by Aristotle, Berlo, Shannon and Weaver.

Its main highlight is the ability to conglomerate old and new components such as semantic noise and feedback. Offers a wider range of uses compared to older communication models.

What do you think of the effectiveness of the Schramm communication model? Let us know what you think in the comments section below.

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  7. Communication process - definition, elements and meaning
  8. Horizontal Communication - Definition, Importance and Benefits
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  10. Berlo's communication model explained - components, structure and criticism


(Video) Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

  • What is Schramm's model of communication?
  • Understand Schramm's model of communication
  • Elements of Schramm's model of communication
    • 1. Origin or sender
    • 2. encoder
    • 3. Decoder
    • 4. Interpreter
    • 5. Recipient
    • 6. message
    • 8. Medium
    • 9. Semantic noise
  • Advantages of the Osgood-Schramm model
  • Schramm Communication Restrictions
  • Examples of Schramm's model of communication
    • Diploma!
    • Read too


What are the limitations of Schramm model of communication? ›

Disadvantages / Weaknesses in the Osgood-Schramm Model

Doesn't recognize that communication can be unequal: There are many circumstance where communication may involve one authority figure talking and one (or many) listeners trying to interpret the message.

What is Schramm model of communication example? ›

The Osgood-Schramm model is built on the theory that communication is a two-way street, with a sender and a receiver. Charles Egerton Osgood popularized the notion that communication was circular rather than linear, meaning that it required two participants taking turns sending and receiving a message.

What is the criticism of Schramm model of communication? ›

Schramm's criticism of linear models of communication, which lack a feedback loop, has been very influential. One shortcoming of Schramm's model is that it assumes that the communicators take turns in exchanging information instead of sending messages simultaneously.

What are the 3 Schramm's model of communication? ›

According to the Schramm's model, coding and decoding are the two essential processes of an effective communication. He also emphasizes that the communication is incomplete unless and until the sender receives a feedback from the recipient.

What are the limitations of communication? ›

Common Barriers to Effective Communication
  • Dissatisfaction or Disinterest With One's Job. ...
  • Inability to Listen to Others. ...
  • Lack of Transparency & Trust. ...
  • Communication Styles (when they differ) ...
  • Conflicts in the Workplace. ...
  • Cultural Differences & Language.
Jul 18, 2018

What is a limitation of the transmission model of communication? ›

Cons: This model is limited because it privileges how the sender communicates, with little attention paid to how the message is received. It is also limited in terms of the message, because it simply evaluates whether or not the message was delivered.

What are the models of communication and examples? ›

8 Models of Communication
Linear Models (One-Directional Communication)Interactive Models (Two-Way Communication)Transactional Models (Personal Communication with immediate two-way feedback)
Lasswell's ModelWestley and Maclean's ModelDance's Helical Model
Shannon-Weaver Model
Berlo's Model
1 more row

Why Schramm model is the most effective? ›

Feedback: compared to other linear model of communications, this model has an iterative loop between the sender and the receiver, which makes it more effective.

What is the biggest limitation of models used in communication? ›

Inflexibility: Communication is an ever-changing process.

But communication models are given through symbols which are inflexible or rigid.

What are the weaknesses of communication models? ›

Lack of prompt feedback. Communication process is limited to one interaction between two participants. Doesn't consider how the communication process impacts social realities. Role of receiver is not clearly stated when interpreting a message.

What are the 3 types of communication models examples? ›

The three models of communication we will discuss are the transmission, interaction, and transaction models. Although these models of communication differ, they contain some common elements.

What are the five limitations? ›

These patterns can be categorized into the five limitations suggested in this paper: western bias, historical amnesia, scope, willful othering, and political ontology.

What are 3 limitations of media? ›

Disadvantages of media
  • It contributes to individualism. ...
  • As a consequence, it is affected by social interactions with friends, relatives and neighbours.
  • Some content in the media is not appropriate for children.
  • It can be tough to restrict children's access to certain stuff.
  • Papers are geographically limited.

What is an example of a limitation to a model? ›

Models are very helpful, but they also have limitations. Details—Models cannot include all the details of the objects that they represent. For example, maps cannot include all the details of the features of the earth such as mountains, valleys, etc.

What are some limitations of models for representing molecules? ›

  • It may not represent a molecule in solution, whose geometry will be different.
  • It can only represent one conformer, when we want to consider several.
  • For a large model, may not be able to see in to the active site.
  • Cannot easily measure distances, angles, etc. from it: for these need tables of data as well.

What are examples of types of models? ›

Here are the top 10
  • Fashion (Editorial) Model. These models are the faces you see in high fashion magazines such as Vogue and Elle. ...
  • Runway Model. ...
  • Swimsuit & Lingerie Model. ...
  • Commercial Model. ...
  • Fitness Model. ...
  • Parts Model. ...
  • Fit Model. ...
  • Promotional Model.
Oct 25, 2021

How many types of models are there explain with example? ›

Fashion (Editorial) Modeling, Fashion (Catalog) Modeling, Runway Modeling, Commercial Modeling, Mature Modeling, Promotional Modeling, Parts Modeling, Fit Modeling, Fitness Modeling, Glamour Modeling etc are some of the types of modeling.

What are the limitations of process model? ›

The major downside of process modelling is the risk of over analysis. Second, although vendor-supplied reference models may not be used much in implementation projects, process models themselves are still valuable for developing shared understandings of processes and planning software implementation projects.

What is a limitation that all models have? ›

All models have limitations because they are not representative of every possible scenario. They use current knowledge and scientific data, but as those are subject to change, the models based off that knowledge and data are subject to change as well.

What are the advantages and limitations of communication? ›

Communication has both advantages and disadvantages, even when the message is delivered in an effective and clear manner.
  • Advantage: Good Communication Promotes Understanding. ...
  • Disadvantage: Negative Acknowledgement. ...
  • Advantage: Read Emotional Cues. ...
  • Disadvantage: It Leaves You Vulnerable.
Jan 22, 2019

What are the pros and cons of models? ›

Pros and Cons of the Modeling Industry
  • Not getting paid a lot of money at the beginning.
  • You may not have work for a few weeks which will also reduce your finances dramatically.
  • You will have to diet all the time to remain trim and healthy.
  • You must also make sure you exercise which is negative if you hate exercising.

What is the limitation or weakness of oral communication *? ›

Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication

Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady. There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials. It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of models? ›

The advantage of using a model is that it allows prediction and simplification of complex systems. On the other hand, the disadvantage of a model is that they could be misleading and can be misinterpreted in a different way.

What are the three 3 types of communication give an example for each of the communication? ›

Communication can be categorized into three basic types: (1) verbal communication, in which you listen to a person to understand their meaning; (2) written communication, in which you read their meaning; and (3) nonverbal communication, in which you observe a person and infer meaning.

What are the four 4 common models of communication? ›

Aristotle Model of Communication. Berlo's Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication. Schramm's Model of Communication.

Which model of communication is most used? ›

Shannon and Weaver model: This is the most popular model of communication and is widely accepted all over the world. Shannon and weaver model simply proposes that a message actually originates from the person who gets the thought or has the information.

What are the limitations of Shannon and Weaver model? ›

The Shannon-Weaver model, by its very nature, encounters some difficulty when applied to human communication. Its origin as a model to be applied to telecommunication, rather than to interpersonal human communication, limits its application due to the linear, unidirectional makeup.

What are the limitations of Berlo's model of communication? ›

Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc).

What is example of Shannon-Weaver model? ›

What is example of Shannon Weaver model? An example of the Shannon-Weaver model is a telephone call. Here, a person who makes the call is the sender and uses a telephone as the encoder to turn the message into a form which can be relayed through wires.

Are there limitations to theoretical models? ›

The main shortcoming of theoretical models is that they are artificial oversimplifications—and intentionally so. To the extent that theoretical models allow analysts to explore the particular relationship between two variables, they are extremely useful. However, very few phenomena are monocausal.

What are the limitations of transactional model? ›

Disadvantages of the Transactional Model of Communication

It is difficult to establish a clear sender and receiver in a transactional model of communication. This can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. 2. The transactional model of communication does not allow for feedback.

What are at least two limitations of using models in science? ›

Answer: Models may be oversimplified, leading to misunderstanding about the subject. Sometimes models cannot represent all aspects of an object or system. Finally, models are only as accurate as current scientific knowledge.

What are the limitations of Aristotle's model of communication? ›

Criticisms of Aristotle's Model of Communication

There is no concept of feedback, it is one way from speaker to audience. There is no concept of communication failure like noise and barriers. This model can only be used in public speaking.

What are the limitations of Aristotle's model of communication *? ›

The Communication Model of Aristotle has come under fire. It is a one-way communication between the speaker and the audience; there is no sense of feedback. Noise and obstructions to communication are not taken into account. This method is only effective when used in public.

What are the limitations of Lasswell's communication model? ›

The major criticism of Lasswell's Model is that it does not include feedback and it ignores the possibility of noise. Without feedback, a communication process can not be fruitful. Lasswell's model is very linear and does not consider barriers in the communication process.


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